Introduction: The valid values of
areas of Brazil, its States and Municipalities are,
according to the territorial setting effected on January,
1st, 2001, those presented in the Resolution of IBGE
Presidency nº 5 (R.PR-5/02) of October, 10, 2002, published
in Brazil’s Federal Register on October, 11, 2002.
The new value for the Brazilian territorial
area was recalculated in order to avoid interference of
graphic deformation in the result. Analytical calculations
were made based on advanced computer platforms, besides
projection systems more suitable for the calculation of
territorial areas. This operation was carried out
individually due to the characteristics of municipalities,
including their territorial extension which may vary from 3
to 150,000 km2. The parameters used for each one of the
5,560 municipalities can be found in the metadata system of
The result obtained in Census 2000 showed
significant improvement in the methodology of calculation of
area, in the identification and cartographic representation
of State and Municipal polygons through substitution and
updating of cartographic bases, all of which reflected the
changes imposed by legal instruments.
Under these circumstances, the figure of
8,514,876.599 km2 was obtained for the area of Brazil, which
corresponds to an increment of about 0.008% to the figure
reported in the Preliminary Summary of Census 2000.
In the values of areas for Brazil, its States
and Municipalities presented in R.PR-5/02, some basic topics
must be highlighted:
- the areas of Trindade and Martins Vaz
Islands are part of the municipality of Vitória (ES)
according to what is stated by municipal law;
- in Rio de Janeiro, the calculation of area
of the municipalities of Carapebus, Conceição de Macabu and
Macaé was prescribed by judicial decision;
- in Rio Grande do Sul, the areas relative to
Lagoas dos Patos and Mirim, were respectively incorporated
into the territory of the State according to the State
Constitution of 1988;
- also in relation to Rio Grande do Sul, it
is important to explain that the municipality of Pinto
Bandeira, which, through writ of prevention, temporarily
suspended Law no 11.375/9 which created the aforementioned
municipality, had its area (105.156 km2) aggregated to the
municipality of Bento Gonçalves.
The technological innovation observed in the
last 60 years provided a general improvement of digital
processes of geographical information acquisition.
Successive changes and adjustment of methodology for the
calculation of Brazilian territorial areas were always aimed
at showing the reality of the national territory, concerning
its cartographic configuration.
In the pursuit of this objective, the
elaboration of new editions of topographic bases of
systematic mapping and the implementation of a permanent
updating project of the existing mapping, constitute
fundamental actions towards the use of new methodologies in
the calculation of areas.
The figures for areas of surfaces of States
and Municipalities are regularly updated considering the
dynamics of the Brazilian Territorial Division, due to
changes of legal, judicial or cartographic nature.
2010 Population Censuses :
The 2010 Population Census consisted of a meticulous survey
of all the households in the country. Throughout the months
of data collection and supervision, 191 thousand enumerators
visited 67.6 million housing units in the 5,565 Brazilian
municipalities in order to obtain information about who and
how many we are and about where and how we live.
According to the first definitive results,
published in November, the total Brazilian population was
More results were made available to the
public in April 2011, with the release of the Population
Census Summary. It presented information about enumerated
households, by type, and about resident population in the
country, by Federation Unit and municipality.
Other results will be released in the course
of 2011 and 2012, as scheduled in the calendar available
Elections in Brazil are conducted under a system of
universal suffrage and secret ballot. Electoral enrolment
and voting are mandatory for all literate citizens between
the ages of 18 and 70, but voluntary for the illiterate and
those aged 16-17 and over 70.
Any person wishing to run for public office
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They are guaranteed the freedom to define their own internal
structure, organisation and operation, including rules
regarding party loyalty and discipline.
Votes are registered electronically, even in
the most remote parts of the country, thereby reducing
potential for fraud and decreasing the time taken for
results to be declared.
Executive power is exercised by the President of the
Republic, assisted by Ministers of State. The President and
Vice-President are elected for four-year terms. In
accordance with specific provisions in the Constitution, the
President may be removed from office (impeached) by
If the office of the President were to become
vacant for any reason, it would be filled by the
Vice-President for the remainder of the original term. If he
or she were unable to carry out this function, next in the
line of succession would be the President of the Chamber of
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The President appoints the Ministers of
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Federal Supreme Court:
Judicial powers are vested in the Federal
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The Federal Supreme Court is at the apex of
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eleven judges, appointed by the President of the Republic
after their nominations have been approved by an absolute
majority in the Senate.
power is exercised by the National Congress, which consists
of two houses: the Chamber of Deputies (lower house) and the
Federal Senate (upper house).
National Congress in Brasília:
The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 513 federal deputies.
The number of deputies by which a state is represented is
proportional to its population. Deputies serve four-year
terms and are elected by direct secret ballot under
The Senate is composed of 81 senators - three
for each of the 26 States (and another three for Federal
District). Senators are elected for eight-year terms, but
the elections are staggered so as to take place every four
years, coinciding with those for the Chamber of Deputies.
Federal deputies and senators are entitled to
stand for re-election without restriction.