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Tel: +966 11 4880018/25

Fax: +966 11 4881073

P.O. Box 94348,

Riyadh 11693

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

 

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Geography

Introduction: The valid values of areas of Brazil, its States and Municipalities are, according to the territorial setting effected on January, 1st, 2001, those presented in the Resolution of IBGE Presidency n 5 (R.PR-5/02) of October, 10, 2002, published in Brazils Federal Register on October, 11, 2002.

The new value for the Brazilian territorial area was recalculated in order to avoid interference of graphic deformation in the result. Analytical calculations were made based on advanced computer platforms, besides projection systems more suitable for the calculation of territorial areas. This operation was carried out individually due to the characteristics of municipalities, including their territorial extension which may vary from 3 to 150,000 km2. The parameters used for each one of the 5,560 municipalities can be found in the metadata system of municipal mapping.

The result obtained in Census 2000 showed significant improvement in the methodology of calculation of area, in the identification and cartographic representation of State and Municipal polygons through substitution and updating of cartographic bases, all of which reflected the changes imposed by legal instruments.

Under these circumstances, the figure of 8,514,876.599 km2 was obtained for the area of Brazil, which corresponds to an increment of about 0.008% to the figure reported in the Preliminary Summary of Census 2000.

In the values of areas for Brazil, its States and Municipalities presented in R.PR-5/02, some basic topics must be highlighted:

- the areas of Trindade and Martins Vaz Islands are part of the municipality of Vitria (ES) according to what is stated by municipal law;

- in Rio de Janeiro, the calculation of area of the municipalities of Carapebus, Conceio de Macabu and Maca was prescribed by judicial decision;

- in Rio Grande do Sul, the areas relative to Lagoas dos Patos and Mirim, were respectively incorporated into the territory of the State according to the State Constitution of 1988;

- also in relation to Rio Grande do Sul, it is important to explain that the municipality of Pinto Bandeira, which, through writ of prevention, temporarily suspended Law no 11.375/9 which created the aforementioned municipality, had its area (105.156 km2) aggregated to the municipality of Bento Gonalves.

Update

The technological innovation observed in the last 60 years provided a general improvement of digital processes of geographical information acquisition. Successive changes and adjustment of methodology for the calculation of Brazilian territorial areas were always aimed at showing the reality of the national territory, concerning its cartographic configuration.

In the pursuit of this objective, the elaboration of new editions of topographic bases of systematic mapping and the implementation of a permanent updating project of the existing mapping, constitute fundamental actions towards the use of new methodologies in the calculation of areas.

The figures for areas of surfaces of States and Municipalities are regularly updated considering the dynamics of the Brazilian Territorial Division, due to changes of legal, judicial or cartographic nature.

Source: http://www.ibge.gov.br/english/geociencias/cartografia/default_territ_area.shtm

 

 Population

2010 Population Censuses : The 2010 Population Census consisted of a meticulous survey of all the households in the country. Throughout the months of data collection and supervision, 191 thousand enumerators visited 67.6 million housing units in the 5,565 Brazilian municipalities in order to obtain information about who and how many we are and about where and how we live.

According to the first definitive results, published in November, the total Brazilian population was 190,732,694 persons.

More results were made available to the public in April 2011, with the release of the Population Census Summary. It presented information about enumerated households, by type, and about resident population in the country, by Federation Unit and municipality.

Other results will be released in the course of 2011 and 2012, as scheduled in the calendar available online.

Source: http://www.ibge.gov.br/english/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/default.shtm

 Government

Electoral System: Elections in Brazil are conducted under a system of universal suffrage and secret ballot. Electoral enrolment and voting are mandatory for all literate citizens between the ages of 18 and 70, but voluntary for the illiterate and those aged 16-17 and over 70.

Any person wishing to run for public office in Brazil must belong to a political party. Parties have to be formally registered with the Superior Electoral Court. They are guaranteed the freedom to define their own internal structure, organisation and operation, including rules regarding party loyalty and discipline.

Votes are registered electronically, even in the most remote parts of the country, thereby reducing potential for fraud and decreasing the time taken for results to be declared.

Executive: Executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic, assisted by Ministers of State. The President and Vice-President are elected for four-year terms. In accordance with specific provisions in the Constitution, the President may be removed from office (impeached) by Congress.

If the office of the President were to become vacant for any reason, it would be filled by the Vice-President for the remainder of the original term. If he or she were unable to carry out this function, next in the line of succession would be the President of the Chamber of Deputies, then the President of the Senate, and the President of the Federal Supreme Court.

The President appoints the Ministers of State, who are directly responsible to him and whom he may dismiss at any time. A Minister of State may be summoned to appear before the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate or any of its committees.

Judiciary:

Federal Supreme Court: Judicial powers are vested in the Federal Supreme Court, Superior Court of Justice, regional courts, and the specific courts for electoral, labour, military, and other matters. Judges in all courts, at both federal and state level, are appointed for life.

The Federal Supreme Court is at the apex of the judicial system. It has its seat in Braslia but holds jurisdiction throughout the country. It is composed of eleven judges, appointed by the President of the Republic after their nominations have been approved by an absolute majority in the Senate.

Legislative:Legislative power is exercised by the National Congress, which consists of two houses: the Chamber of Deputies (lower house) and the Federal Senate (upper house).

National Congress in Braslia: The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 513 federal deputies. The number of deputies by which a state is represented is proportional to its population. Deputies serve four-year terms and are elected by direct secret ballot under universal suffrage.

The Senate is composed of 81 senators - three for each of the 26 States (and another three for Federal District). Senators are elected for eight-year terms, but the elections are staggered so as to take place every four years, coinciding with those for the Chamber of Deputies.

Federal deputies and senators are entitled to stand for re-election without restriction.

 

 G e n e r a l   R a n k i n g

 

1st producer of coffee, sugar-car, fruit & oranges.

1st beef cattle in the world.

1st in terms of iron ore reserves in Latin America.

1st in the number of Internet users in Latin America.

 

2nd producer of earthenware roof tiles and iron ore.

2nd manufacturer of compressors for refrigerators.

2nd producer of beans, cassava, soybeans and beef.

2nd market for executive jets, helicopters, fax

      machines and analgesics.

2nd in the number of mobile phones.

 

3rd producer and exporter of chicken.

3rd producer of refined sugar and maize.

3rd market for franchising, soft drinks & motorcycles.

 

4th manufacturer of regional passenger aircraft.

4th beer maker.

4th producer of grain and cocoa.

4th producer and exporter of pork.

4th market for computer technology, shopping centers,

      refrigerators, freezers & washing machines.

4th television network.

 

5th in the number of fixed telephone lines.

5th producer of gasoline and manganese.

5th manufacturer of radio sets.

5th in terms of size of territory and population.

5th consumer market.

 

6th producer of milk, cast iron, primary aluminium & 

      cement.

6th in terms of iron ore reserves in the world.

6th manufacturer of cigarettes.

6th producer of iron and aluminium.

 

7th producer of gold, cellulose and eggs.

7th manufacturer of refrigerators, textiles and clothing.

7th in the number of computers & television sets.

7th in the size of fleets of vehicles & helicopters.

7th among rubber industries.

 

8th manufacturer of corrugated paper, chemical  

      products and processed food.

8th manufacturer of pewter.

8th producer of cotton, rice, steel & tinplate.

8th in the number of credit cards.

 

9th in the number of internet users in the world.

 

10th industrial park.

10th in the generation of energy.

12th manufacturer of automobiles and lubricants.

14th producer of nickel.

18th producer of crude oil and copper.

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